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Enable chatGLM by creating OpenVINO™ stateful model and runtime pipeline

July 3, 2023

Authors: Zhen Zhao(Fiona), Cheng Luo, Tingqian Li, Wenyi Zou


Since the Large Language Models (LLMs) become the hot topic, a lot Chinese language models have been developed and actively deployed in optimization platforms. chatGLM is one of the popular Chinese LLMs which are widely been evaluated. However, ChatGLM model is not yet a native model in Transformers, which means there remains support gap in official optimum. In this blog, we provide a quick workaround to re-construct the model structure by OpenVINO™ opset contains custom optimized nodes for chatGLM specifically and these nodes has been highly optimized by AMX intrinsic and MHA fusion.

*Please note, this blog only introduces a workaround of optimization method by creating OpenVINO™ stateful model for chatGLM.  This workaround has limitation of platform, which requires to use Intel® 4th Xeon Sapphire Rapids with AMX optimization. We do not promise the maintenance of this workaround.

Source link: https://github.com/luo-cheng2021/openvino/tree/luocheng/chatglm_custom/tools/gpt

To support more LLMs, including llama, chatglm2, gpt-neox/dolly, gpt-j and falcon. You can refer this link which not limited on SPR platform, also can compute from Core to Xeon:

Source link: https://github.com/luo-cheng2021/ov.cpu.llm.experimental

ChatGLM model brief

If we check with original model source of chatGLM, we can find that the ChatGLM is not compatible with Optimum ModelForCasualML, it defines the new class ChatGLMForConditionalGeneration. This model has 3 main modules (embedding, GLMBlock layers and lm_logits) during the pipeline loop, the structure is like below:

Model structure of chatGLM

As you can see, the whole pipeline actually require model with two different graphs, the first-time inference with input prompt tokens do not require KV cache as inputs for GLMBlock layers. Since the second iteration, the previous results of QKV Attention should become the inputs of current round model inference. Along with the length of generated token increased, there will remain a lot of large sized memory copies between model inputs and outputs during pipeline inference.  We can use ChatGLM6b default model configurations as an example, the memory copies between input and output arrays are like below pseudocode:

while(eos_token_id || max_seq_len){
    memcpy(model_inp, model_outp, num_layer*2*sizeof(model_outp)* hidden_size)

Therefore, two topics is the most important:

  • How we can optimize model inference pipeline to eliminate memory copy between model inputs and outputs
  • How we can put optimization efforts on GLMBlock module by reinvent execution graph

Extremely optimization by OpenVINO™ stateful model

Firstly, we need to analyze the structure of GLMBlock layer, and try to encapsulate a class to invoke OpenVINO™ opset with below workflow. Then serialize the graph to IR model(.xml, .bin).

Build OpenVINO™ stateful model for chatGLM

To build an OpenVINO™ stateful model, you can refer to this document to learn.


OpenVINO™ also provide model creation sample to show how to build a model by opset.


It is clear to show that the emphasized optimization block is the custom op of Attention for chatGLM. The main idea is to build up a global context to store and update pastKV results internally, and then use intrinsic optimization for Rotary Embedding and Multi-Head Attentions. In this blog, we provide an optimized the attention structure of chatGLM with AMX intrinsic operators.

At the same time, we use int8 to compress the weights of the Fully Connected layer, you are not required to compress the model by Post Training Quantization (PTQ) or process with framework for Quantization Aware Training(QAT).

Create OpenVINO™ stateful model for chatGLM

Please prepare your hardware and software environment like below and follow the steps to optimize the chatGLM:

Hardware requirements

Intel® 4th Xeon platform(codename Sapphire Rapids) and above

Software Validation Environment

Ubuntu 22.04.1 LTS

python 3.10.11 for OpenVINO™ Runtime Python API

GCC 11.3.0 to build OpenVINO™ Runtime

cmake 3.26.4

Building OpenVINO™ Source

  • Install system dependency and setup environment
  • Create and enable python virtual environment

$ conda create -n ov_py310 python=3.10 -y
$ conda activate ov_py310

  • Install python dependency

$ pip install protobuf transformers==4.30.2 cpm_kernels torch>=2.0 sentencepiece pandas

  • Build OpenVINO™ with GCC 11.3.0
  • Clone OpenVINO™ and update submodule

$ git clone https://github.com/luo-cheng2021/openvino.git -b luocheng/chatglm_custom
$ cd openvino && git submodule update --init --recursive

  • Install python dependency for building python wheels

$ python -m pip install -U pip 
$ python -m pip install -r ./src/bindings/python/src/compatibility/openvino/requirements-dev.txt
$ python -m pip install -r ./src/bindings/python/wheel/requirements-dev.txt

  • Create build directory

$ mkdir build && cd build

  • Build OpenVINO™ with CMake

$ cmake .. -DENABLE_LLMDNN=ON \
    -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Release \
    -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=`pwd`/install \
    -DCMAKE_INSTALL_RPATH=`pwd`/install/runtime/3rdparty/tbb/lib:`pwd`/install/runtime/3rdparty/hddl/lib:`pwd`/install/runtime/lib/intel64 \
$ make --jobs=$(nproc --all)
$ make install

  • Install built python wheel for OpenVINO™ runtime and openvino-dev tools

$ pip install ./install/tools/openvino*.whl

  • Check system gcc version and conda runtime gcc version. If the system gcc version is higher than conda gcc version like below, you should update conda gcc version for OpenVINO runtime. (Optional)

##check system (OpenVINO compiling env) gcc version
$ gcc --version
gcc (Ubuntu 11.3.0-1ubuntu1~22.04.1) 11.3.0

##check conda python (runtime env for OpenVINO later) gcc version
$ python
Python 3.10.11 (main, May 16 2023, 00:28:57) [GCC 11.2.0] on linux

##If sys gcc ver > conda gcc ver, upgrade conda gcc ver -> sys gcc ver
$ conda install -c conda-forge gcc=11.3.0

  • convert pytorch model to OpenVINO™ IR

$ cd ..
$ python tools/gpt/gen_chatglm.py /path/to/pytorch/model /path/to/ov/IR

Use OpenVINO Runtime API to build Inference pipeline for chatGLM  

We provide a demo by using transformers and OpenVINO™ runtime API to build the inference pipeline. In test_chatglm.py, we create a new class which inherit from transformers.PreTrainedModel. And we update the forward function by build up model inference pipeline with OpenVINO™ runtime Python API. Other member functions are migrated from ChatGLMForConditionalGeneration from modeling_chatglm.py, so that, we can make sure the input preparation work, set_random_seed, tokenizer/detokenizer and left pipelined operation can be totally same as original model source.

To enable the int8 weights compress, you just need a simple environment variable USE_INT8_WEIGHT=1. That is because during the model generation, we use int8 to compress the weights of the Fully Connected layer, and then it can use int8 weights to inference on runtime, you are not required to compress the model by framework or quantization tools.

Please follow below steps to test the chatGLM with OpenVINO™ runtime pipeline:

  • Run bf16 model

$ python3  tools/gpt/test_chatglm.py /path/to/pytorch/model /path/to/ov/IR --use=ov

  • Run int8 model

$ USE_INT8_WEIGHT=1 python test_chatglm.py /path/to/pytorch/model /path/to/ov/IR --use=ov

Weights compression reduces memory bandwidth utilization to improve inference speed

We use VTune for performance comparison analysis of model weights bf16 and int8. Comparative analysis of memory bandwidth and CPI rate (Table 1). When model weight is compressed to int8, it can reduce memory bandwidth utilization and CPI rate.

Memory Bandwidth Utilization when model weight precision is bf16
Memory Bandwidth Utilization when model weight precision is int8
Table 1. CPI Rate for different model weight precision

Clockticks per Instructions Retired(CPI) event ratio, also known as Cycles per Instructions, is one of the basic performance metrics for the hardware event-based sampling collection, also known as Performance Monitoring Counter (PMC) analysis in the sampling mode. This ratio is calculated by dividing the number of unhalted processor cycles(Clockticks) by the number of instructions retired. On each processor the exact events used to count clockticks and instructions retired may be different, but VTune Profiler knows the correct ones to use.

A CPI < 1 is typical for instruction bound code, while a CPI > 1 may show up for a stall cycle bound application, also likely memory bound.


Along with the upgrading of OpenVINO™ main branch, the optimization work in this workaround will be generalized and integrated into official release. It will be helpful to scale more LLMs model usage. Please refer OpenVINO™ official release and Optimum-intel OpenVINO™ backend to get official and efficient support for LLMs.


AquilaChat-7B Language Model Enabling with Hugging Face Optimum Intel

July 3, 2023


What is AquilaChat-7B Language Model?

Figure 1: Aquila Language Model from BAAI

Aquila Language Model is a set of open-source large language models (LLMs) developed by the Beijing Academy of Artificial Intelligence (BAAI). Aquila models support both Chinese and English, commercial license agreements, and compliance with Chinese domestic data regulations.

AquilaChat-7B is a conversational language model that supports Chinese and English dialogue. It is based on the Aquila-7B foundation model and fine-tuned using supervised fine-tuning (SFT). AquilaChat-7B original Pytorch model and configurations are publicly available here.

Hugging Face Optimum Intel

Figure 2: Hugging Face Optimum Intel

Hugging Face is one of the most popular open-source data science and machine learning platforms. It acts as a hub for AI experts and enthusiasts—like a GitHub for AI. Over 200,000 models are available across Natural language processing, Multimodal models, Computer Vision, and Audio domains.

Hugging Face provides wide support for model optimization and deployment of open-sourced LLMs such as LLaMA, Bloom, GPT-Neox, Dolly 2.0, to name a few. More details please refer to Open LLM Leaderboard.

Optimum-Intel provides a simple interface between the Hugging Face and OpenVINOTM ecosystem to leverage high-performance inference capabilities for Intel architecture.  Here is a simple example to show how to run Dolly 2.0 models with OVModelForCausalLM using OpenVINOTM runtime.

from optimum.intel import OVModelForCausalLM
from transformers import AutoTokenizer

model_id = "databricks/dolly-v2-3b"
tokenizer = AutoTokenizer.from_pretrained(model_id)
model = OVModelForCausalLM.from_pretrained(model_id, export=True, use_cache=True)
prompt = "Deep learning is a type of machine learning"
inputs = tokenizer(prompt, return_tensors="pt")
output_ids = model.generate(**inputs)

Hola! So, for LLMs already supported by Hugging Face transformers and optimum, we can smoothly switch the model inference backend from Pytorch to OpenVINOTM by changing only two lines of code.

However, what if an LLM from an open-source community that not native supported by Hugging Face Transformers library? How can we still leverage the tools of Hugging Face and OpenVINOTM ecosystem for model optimization and deployment?

Indeed, AquilaChat-7B is a custom model for the Hugging Face Transformers. So, we use it as an example to elaborate the custom model enabling methodology step by step.

How to Enable a Custom Model on Hugging Face?

To leverage the Hugging Face ecosystem and optimization for AquilaChat-7B model, we need to convert the original Pytorch model to Hugging Face Format. Before we dive into conversion details, we need to figure out what is AquilaChat-7B’s model structure, tokenizer, and configurations.

According to Aquila’s official model description:

“The Aquila language model inherits the architectural design advantages of GPT-3 and LLaMA, replacing a batch of more efficient underlying operator implementations and redesigning the tokenizer for Chinese-English bilingual support. The Aquila language model is trained from scratch on high-quality Chinese and English corpora. “

Model Structure and Tokenizer

For model structure, Aquila Model adopts the original Meta LLaMA pytorch implementation, which combines RMSNorm (GPT-3) to improve training stability and Rotary Position Embedding (GPT-NeoX)to incorporate explicit relative position dependency in self-attention.

For tokenizer, instead of using byte-pair encoding (BPE) algorithms implemented by Sentence Piece, Aquila re-trained HuggingFace GPT-NeoX tokenizer with extended vocabulary (vocab_size =100008, including 8 special tokens, e.g. bos_token=100006, eos_token=100007, unk=0, pad=0 used for inference based on here.

Rotary Position Embedding

Rotary Position Embedding (RoPE) encodes the absolute position with a rotation matrix and meanwhile incorporates the explicit relative position dependency in the self-attention formulation. Compare to other position embedding methods, RoPE provides valuable properties such as flexibility of sequence length, long-term decay, and linear self-attention with relative position embedding. Based on the original paper, there are two mainstream implementations of RoPE:

As show in Figure 3, Meta LLaMA’s implementation directly use complex number to calculate rotary position embedding.

Figure 3. Meta LLaMA’s implementation of RoPE

As show in Figure 4, Google PaLM’s implementation expands the complex number operation and calculate sinusoidal functions in matrix equation of real numbers.

Figure 4.Google PaLM’s implementation of RoPE

Both RoPE implementations are valid for the Pytorch model. Hugging Face LLaMA implementation adopts PaLM’s RoPE implementation due to the limitation of complex type support for ONNX export.

Besides, Hugging Face provides a useful script convert_llama_weights_to_hf.py to convert the original Meta LLaMA Pytorch Model to Hugging Face Format as follows:

  • Extract Pytorch weights and convert Meta LlaMA RoPE implementation to Hugging Face RoPE implementation.
  • Convert tokenizer.model trained with Sentence Piece to Hugging Face LLaMA tokenizer.

Convert AquilaChat-7B Model to Hugging Face Format

Similarly, we provide a convert_aquila_weights_to_hf.py to convert AquilaChat-7B Model to Hugging Face Format.

  • Extract Pytorch weights and convert Aquila RoPE implementation to Hugging Face RoPE implementation
  • Initialize and save a Hugging Face GPT-NeoX Tokenizer with extended vocabulary based on original tokenizer configurations provided by Aquila.
  • Add a modeling_aquila.py to enable support forAutoModelForCausalLM and AutoTokenizer

Here is the converted Hugging Face version of AquilaChat-7B v0.6 model uploaded in Hugging Face.

You may convert pytorch weights to Hugging Face format in two steps:

  1. Download AquilaChat-7B Pytorch Model and configurations here
  2. Convert AquilaChat-7B Pytorch Model and configurations to Hugging Face Format
pip install transformers>=4.30.2
python convert_aquila_weights_to_hf.py --input_dir checkpoints/aquilachat-7b --model_size 7B --output_dir aquilachat-7b-hf

Hugging Face AquilaChat-7B Demo

Setup Environment

pip install optimum==1.8.8 optimum-intel[openvino]==1.9.1 onnx onnxruntime

Run inference with AutoModelForCausalLM

import torch
from transformers import AutoTokenizer, AutoModelForCausalLM
tokenizer = AutoTokenizer.from_pretrained('sammysun0711/aquilachat-7b-hf')
model = AutoModelForCausalLM.from_pretrained('sammysun0711/aquilachat-7b-hf', trust_remote_code=True)
model = model.eval()

question = '北京为什么是中国的首都?'
prompt = (
    '''A chat between a curious human and an artificial intelligence assistant. The assistant gives helpful, detailed, and polite answers to the human's questions.'''
    f'''###Human: {question}###Assistant:'''
with torch.no_grad():
    ret = model.generate(
        **tokenizer(prompt, return_tensors='pt').to('cpu'),

Run inference with OVModelForCausalLM

from transformers import AutoTokenizer
from optimum.intel import OVModelForCausalLM

tokenizer = AutoTokenizer.from_pretrained('sammysun0711/aquilachat-7b-hf')
model = OVModelForCausalLM.from_pretrained('sammysun0711/aquilachat-7b-hf', export=True, use_cache=True, trust_remote_code=True)

question = '北京为什么是中国的首都?'
prompt = (
    '''A chat between a curious human and an artificial intelligence assistant. The assistant gives helpful, detailed, and polite answers to the human's questions.'''
    f'''###Human: {question}###Assistant:'''
ret = model.generate(
        **tokenizer(prompt, return_tensors='pt').to('cpu'),


In this blog, we show how to convert a custom Large Language Model (LLM) to Hugging Face format to leverage efficient optimization and deployment with Hugging Face and OpenVINOTM Ecosystem.

Please note, this is the initial model enabling step for AquilaChat-7B model with OpenVINOTM. We will continue to optimize performance along with upgrading OpenVINOTM for LLM scaling.  Please refer to OpenVINOTM and Optimum-Intel official release to get latest efficient support for LLMs with OpenVINOTM backend.