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Build OpenVINO on Kylin OS Guide

Authors: Tong Qiu, Wenyi Zou

Kylin is an operating system based on Linux, developed by academics at the National University of Defense Technology in the People's Republic of China. For more information about Kylin OS, please visit the Wikipedia page at Kylin. In the following sections, we will provide a step-by-step guide to building and running OpenVINO on the Kylin Operating System.


The version of Kylin OS we are using is “Kylin HostOS V10”, with the specific version being “V10 (Helium)”. You may obtain this information by executing the command:

cat /etc/*release 

We build OpenVINO using GCC 10.3.1, CMake 3.26.0, and Python 3.9.9, which can all be installed by default using command lines. Next, we will demonstrate how to install these necessary dependencies.

Install Build Dependencies

Instead of executing the ./ script referenced in  Build OpenVINO™ Runtime for Linux systems, you can directly install the build dependencies using the following command lines:

yum update && yum install -y \
   file \
   cmake3 \
   ninja-build \
   scons \
   gcc \
   gcc-c++ \
   make \
   git \
   fdupes \
   rpm-build \
   tbb-devel \
   libva-devel \
   snappy-devel \
   python3-pip \

Setup Python Virtual Environment

The next step is to create and activate a Python virtual environment. While this step is optional, we strongly recommend it to ensure better management of your project's dependencies.

python3 -m venv openvino_env
source openvino_env/bin/activate

Following the completion of the steps to build OpenVINO within the Python virtual environment, you can activate OpenVINO alongside the Python virtual environment each time by executing the source command.

Build OpenVINO with CMake 3.26.0 and GCC 10.3.1

Now we've reached the step to build OpenVINO. First, clone the OpenVINO repository and update its submodules.

git clone
cd openvino && git submodule update --init --recursive

Next, install the Python dependencies that are required for building Python wheels.

python3 -m pip install -U pip 
python3 -m pip install -r ./src/bindings/python/wheel/requirements-dev.txt

Then, create the build directory.

mkdir build && cd build

To build OpenVINO with CMake, start by using the command provided below. For enhanced performance, it is recommended to append the -DCMAKE_CXX_FLAGS=-march=native to your command, as this will enable the compiler to optimize the build for your specific hardware by using all supported instruction subsets. Additionally, if you require a Python wheel, include the corresponding build option. Remember to tailor the CMake parameters to fit your particular requirements.

cmake -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Release .. -DCMAKE_CXX_FLAGS=-march=native -DENABLE_PYTHON=ON -DPython3_EXECUTABLE=/usr/bin/python3 -DENABLE_WHEEL=ON
cmake --build . --parallel

Once the build process is complete, you can install the generated wheel using the pip command.

pip install <openvino_repo>/build/wheel/openvino-*.whl


Quick test for built openvino runtime and openvino-dev tools

You can quickly verify your built and installed OpenVINO setup. Start by creating a model directory and installing the dependencies for the model optimizer.

mkdir ~/ov_models
pip install onnx protobuf openvino-dev[pytorch]

Next, download the resnet50 pytorch model using omz_downloader.

omz_downloader --name resnet-50-pytorch -o ~/ov_models/

Then, convert resnet50 pytorch model to OpenVINO FP32 IR via omz_converter.

omz_converter --name resnet-50-pytorch -o ~/ov_models/ -d ~/ov_models/

Finally, execute benchmark_app with resnet50 FP32 IR model on CPU.

benchmark_app -m ~/ov_models/public/resnet-50-pytorch/FP32/resnet-50-pytorch.xml -d CPU

Additional Details for OpenVINO Setup

If you prefer to build OpenVINO with a different compiler, such as clang, you can modify the CMake configuration step accordingly. To build with the clang compiler, please refer to the website at Clang - Getting Started for instructions on installation and setup. Below is an example of a CMake generation command that specifies clang as the compiler:

cmake -S .. -DCMAKE_C_COMPILER=clang --DCMAKE_CXX_COMPILER=clang++ 



Creating AI Pipeline for Cell Image Analysis: Insights, Challenges, and CHO Use Case (Part 1 of 2, Intel Edge AI in the Realm of Biopharma and Drug Development)

April 23, 2024

In the ever-evolving landscape of biopharmaceutical technology and drug development, a recent effort in the field of Cell Analytics for Monoclonal Antibody Production has shed light on the crucial role of Edge AI Technology in navigating complex challenges of scaling and producing solutions.  

In this 2-part blog series, we will explore the use of Intel Edge AI Technology in biopharma and drug development, addressing challenges and providing insights into the development of AI pipelines for cell segmentation and analysis.

Intel has been involved in this process with a variety of partners. One of Intel’s contributions to the cell image project centers around processing brightfield1 images using an AI pipeline containing multiple deep learning models. The pipeline's purpose is to identify cells and other biological components and provide feedback on dynamic biological characteristics such as cell morphology, viability, and phenotypic changes, among others. Throughout this process, working on cell-AI projects usually brings a unique set of challenges to the forefront.  

First, it is an interdisciplinary field and the knowledge gap between data scientists and biopharma experts requires more back-and-forth clear communications for planning and validity checks. Frequently when attempting to implement AI solutions in the laboratory, data scientists and bench scientists struggle to fully grasp the nature and needs of each other’s role. This lack of mutual understanding can also hinder the usability and scalability of an AI solution needing to be integrated into diverse lab environments.

The second challenge is instrument variability. Different plate reader2 microscopes have different hardware, optics, and apertures which cause their produced images not to be consistent. This adds an extra layer of work to assess and address these inconsistencies along the way (like regular tracked calibration and adjustment). Additionally, equipment vendor-to-vendor differences, culture temperature, medium conditions, and genetic modifications can all affect the variability of data and the inherent transferability of the deep learning pipeline. This would drive the need to monitor the performance of DL models at the edge and cloud ML ops components.    

The third challenge is obtaining peer-review labels because the process is based on supervised Machine Learning and obtaining clean accurate labels is very costly and time-consuming.  

And the last challenge is about the model deployment. In most cases, cloud deployment is not an option due to data size and data privacy. Produced images from plate reader microscopes are huge and transferring data to the cloud and sending the results back would create high latency because a huge amount of data must be streamed (30Gb per hour). And more importantly, laboratories are usually not willing to share the data. Due to these two constraints, cloud deployments are not usually an option, and the pipeline must be deployed at the edge.  

Now, let’s talk about a specific application of this technology: the CHO Cell Segmentation Use Case.

CHO Cell Segmentation Use Case

CHO cells, or Chinese Hamster Ovary cells, are a cornerstone in the production of complex protein molecules such as monoclonal antibodies, fusion proteins, hormones, and coagulation factors. Unlike stem cells or CAR-T cells, where the cells themselves are the therapeutic product, in CHO cells, it is the proteins they produce that are of paramount importance. Monitoring the health, viability, and production capability of these cells is a critical step in commercial protein production.

Traditionally, assessing the condition of CHO cells involves a multi-step process that is not only time-consuming but also requires the use of expensive reagents and chemicals. Depending on the process, the workflow can be something like below.  

  1. Culture cells  
  1. Fix cells – wash in expensive reagents to remove the culture medium.  
  1. Permeabilization – wash in more expensive chemicals to permeabilize the cell membrane (to stain for intercellular proteins).
  1. Blocking – incubate cells in another expensive reagent to prevent binding of no specific antibodies.
  1. Primary Antibody Incubation – antibody specifically to bind to a protein that is being produced.
  1. Washing – removing unbound Primary Antibodies using more expensive chemicals.
  1. Nuclear staining – use nuclear stain like DAPI to visualize cell nuclei then wash with the same chemicals from the washing step
  1. Mounting – get ready to read in the microscope (plate reader1)
  1. Imaging – Stained cells …. count them up and determine the state in the protein production cycle and relative cell health (eventually they peter out and stop producing and the batch needs to be flushed. (Cell count, viability number, etc. are the output not the image)

From culturing to imaging, each step plays a vital role in ensuring the quality of the protein product. However, with the advent of AI and deep learning, there is an opportunity to streamline this workflow significantly. Using an AI pipeline including multiple Deep Learning models and data pre and post-processing, we can go from Step 1 directly to Step 9, removing the majority of the labor and latency in getting actionable results out of a staining workflow and bypassing expensive specialty chemicals requirement. Intel has put together a reference implementation for deploying said pipeline and inferencing of these images on the edge as part of the Cell Image project OpenVINO Toolkit, OpenVINO Model Server, and AI Connect for Scientific Data are used in this design. Let’s briefly talk about each of these wonderful SW packages in part 2 of this article series. Stay tuned!


In conclusion, the integration of Intel Edge AI Technology into the biopharmaceutical sector represents a transformative step towards more efficient and scalable drug development processes. As we have seen in this first installment of our blog series, the deployment of AI pipelines for cell segmentation and analysis in monoclonal antibody production is not without its challenges. These include bridging the interdisciplinary knowledge gap, managing instrument variability, acquiring peer-reviewed labels, and overcoming the hurdles associated with model deployment.

Despite these challenges, the potential benefits of Edge AI in biopharma are substantial. By leveraging Intel's advanced AI technologies, we can significantly reduce the time and cost associated with traditional cell analysis methods, while also enhancing the accuracy and reliability of the results. The use of edge computing addresses the concerns of data size and privacy, allowing for real-time processing and analysis without the need for cloud transfer.

As we move forward in this blog series, we will delve deeper into the specifics of Intel's Edge AI solutions, including the OpenVINO toolkit, OpenVINO Model Server, and AI Connect for Scientific Data. We will explore how these tools are being applied in real-world scenarios to drive innovation and improve outcomes in the realm of biopharma and drug development in the next part of this series.

Reach out to Intel's Health and Life Sciences team at or learn more about what we do at


We'd like to hear from you! Let us know in the comments or discuss – which AI use cases in health and life sciences do you think will have the greatest impact on global health?

If you enjoyed hearing from the Health and Life Sciences team and want to hear more, give this post a like and ensure you subscribe to get the latest updates from the team. 


About the Author

Nooshin Nabizadeh has Ph.D. in Electrical and Computer Engineering from the University of Miami and works at Intel Corporation as AI Solutions Architect. She enjoys photography, writing poetry, reading about psychology and philosophy, and optimizing solutions to run as fast as possible on a given piece of hardware. Connect with her on LinkedIn by mentioning this blog.

  1. Brightfield microscopy is a widely used technique for observing the morphology of cells and tissues.
  1. A plate reader is a laboratory instrument used to obtain images from samples in microtiter plates. The reader shines a specific calibrated frequency of light (UV, visible, fluorescence, etc.) through the samples in the wells of the plate. Plate reader microscopy data sets have inherent variability which drives the requirement of regular tracked calibration and adjustment.


Large Language Model Graph Customization with OpenVINO™ Transformations API

April 15, 2024

Authors: Xiake Sun, Wenyi Zou, Fiona Zhao


A Large Language Model (LLM) is a type of artificial intelligence algorithm that uses deep learning techniques and massively large data sets to understand, summarize, generate and predict new content.

OpenVINO™ optimizes the deployment of LLMs, enhancing their performance and integration into various applications. We already provide general guide to use LLMs with OpenVINO, from model loading and conversion to advanced use cases.

In this blog, we will introduce some useful method to customize Large Language model’s graph with OpenVINO™ transformation API.

OpenVINO™ Runtime has three main transformation types:

  • Modelpass: straightforward way to work with ov::Model directly
  • Matcherpass: pattern-based transformation approach
  • Graphrewrite pass: container for matcher passes needed for efficient execution.
Figure1. OpenVINO™ transformations API structure overview

In this blog, we mainly use ov::pass::MatcherPassto customize model subgraph via pattern-based transformation.

Here are common steps to implement graph customization using ov::pass::MatcherPass.

  1. Create a pattern
  2. Implement a callback
  3. Register the pattern and Matcher
  4. Execute MatcherPass

In this blog, we will use an open-source LLMs Qwen1.5-7B-Chat-GPTQ-Int4 from Alibaba Cloud with guide for model conversion and graph customization methods.

Qwen Pytorch to OpenVINO™ Model conversion

Here we can use openvino.genai repo to convert Qwen1.5 GPTQ INT4 Pytroch model to OpenVINO™model.

conda create -n openvino.genai python=3.10
git clone
cd llm_bench/python
pip install -r requirements.txt
python –model_id Qwen/Qwen1.5-7B-Chat-GPTQ-Int4 --output_dir  Qwen1.5-7B-Chat-GPTQ-Int4-OV --precision FP16 

Converted model can be find in path “Qwen1.5-7B-Chat-GPTQ-Int4-OV/pytorch/dldt/GPTQ_INT4-FP16/".

Insert custom layer to OpenVINO model

Vocabularysize in the context of LLMs refers to the total number of unique words, or tokens, that the model can recognize and use. The larger the vocabulary size,the more nuanced and detailed the model’s understanding of language can be,however, it also requires more computational and memory resources for deployment.  E.g. Qwen’s vocabulary size(151936) is almost 5x that Llama2 (32000), therefore additional optimization is required for efficient deployment.

We found that the following pattern existed in the Qwen model in Figure 2:

Figure 2: Workflow to reduce MatMul computation and memory usage for logits in Qwen model

To compute the first token generation for the input prompt with shape [1, seq_length], we need to calculate a MatMul operation based on two inputs.

  • First input is a reshape node output with shape[1, seq_length, 4096]
  • Second input is a constant value that contains the model’s vocabulary with shape [4096,151936]

Then Matmul calculates two inputs [1, seq_length, 4096] * [4096,151936] to output large logits [1, seq_length,151936]. However, for the next token prediction, we only need the last element [1,4096] in 1st dimension from logits for sampling.

The main idea is to insert a slice operation between Reshape and Matmul nodes to extract only the last element in 2nd dimension of reshape node output as the first input with shape [1,4096] for computation. Therefore, Matmul computation can be reduced from [1, seq_len, 4096] * [1, 4096, 151936] = [1, seq_len, 151936] to [1, 1, 4096] *[4096, 151936] = [1, 1, 151936], which can reduce first token latency and memory consumption.

Here is a sample code to implement the workflow defined in Figure2 to reduce Qwen's last Matmul computation and memory usage:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
import numpy as np
import openvino as ov
from openvino.runtime import Core, Type
from openvino.runtime.passes import Manager, MatcherPass, WrapType, Matcher
from openvino.runtime import opset10 as ops
from openvino.preprocess import PrePostProcessor

class InsertSlice(MatcherPass):
    def __init__(self):
        self.model_changed = False

        param = WrapType("opset10.Result")

        def callback(matcher: Matcher) -> bool:
            root = matcher.get_match_root()
            print("root: ", root)
            if root is None:
                return False
            root_output = matcher.get_match_value()
            print("root_output", root_output)
            root_name = root.get_friendly_name()
            if (len(root.get_output_partial_shape(0)) == 3):
                print(f"Find target root node name: {root_name}")
                parent = root.input_value(0).get_node()
                print(f"Find target parent node name: {parent.get_friendly_name()}")
                grand_parent = parent.input_value(0).get_node()
                print(f"Find grandparent node name: {grand_parent.get_friendly_name()}")
                grand_parent_output = parent.input(0).get_source_output()
                print("grand_parent_output: ", grand_parent_output)
                consumers = grand_parent_output.get_target_inputs()
                print(f"consumers: {consumers}")
                print("Original reshape node output shape:", grand_parent_output.get_partial_shape())
                start = np.array([0, -1, 0], dtype=np.int32)
                stop = np.array([1, -2, 4096], dtype=np.int32)
                step = np.array([1, -1, 1], dtype=np.int32)
                axes = np.array([0, 1, 2], dtype=np.int32)
                slice = ops.slice(grand_parent, start, stop, step, axes, name="inserted_slice")
                print("After insert slice node, output shape:", slice.output(0).get_partial_shape())

                for consumer in consumers:
                self.model_changed = True
                # Use new operation for additional matching
                return True

        self.register_matcher(Matcher(param,"InsertSlice"), callback)

if __name__ == "__main__":
    model_path = " Qwen1.5-7B-Chat-GPTQ-Int4-OV/pytorch/dldt/GPTQ_INT4-FP16/ openvino_model.xml"
    modified_model_path = "Qwen1.5-7B-Chat-GPTQ-Int4-OV/pytorch/dldt/GPTQ_INT4-FP16/modified_openvino_model.xml")
    core = Core()
    ov_model = core.read_model(model_path)
    manager = Manager()
    ov.save_model(ov_model, modified_model_path)

We defined a OpenVINO™ transformation "InsertSlice" to find the logits (Results) node via ov::pass::MatchPass, then search along root->parent->grandparent node to find the Reshape node. Afterward, we insert a Slice node between the Reshape and Matmul nodes to extract the last element of seq_length with shape [1,1,4096]. In the end, we apply "InsertSlice" transformation to original OpenVINO™ model and save modified model on disk for deployment.

Modify model weights of specified layer in OpenVINO model

In case you want to update certain model layer weights after model training or fine-tuning/compression.

E.g. if you have an INT4 weight-compressed model using another model compression method, e.g. AWQ, you may want to transfer model weights optimized with the quantization method.

The most general method will be to convert the original model to OpenVINO™ model if the model direct conversion works. However, if first option is not works out of box, an alternative option is to replace the model weights from OpenVINO™ models with external fine-tuning model weights.

Figure 3: Update model weights of OpenVINO™ Model with external fine-tuned model weights

Here we introduce a common method to modify layer weights of Qwen model via OpenVINO™ transformation API.

As Figure 3 shows, the goal is to replace model weights and scale of the original Constant node with external fine-tuned weights and scale data.

At first, we use ov::pass::MatchPass method to find the Convert node after the target node. Then we create a new constant node with external weight saved as a numpy array. Please note, GPTQ int4 model weight is saved asuint4 (U4) binary format, while numpy can only represent data with numpy.uint8. Therefore, we use a help function to pack 2 uint4 binary data as 1 uint8 binary data. Then we replace the Convert input port from the original Constant node to the new Constant node.  Since the old constant node has no consumers and is neither the Result nor the Sink operation whose shared pointer counter is zero, the operation will be destructed and not be accessible anymore.

Here is a sample code to implement the workflow defined in Figure3 to replace Qwen Constant node via the new Constant node with external data:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
import numpy as np
import openvino as ov
import torch 
from openvino.runtime import Core, Model, Type
from openvino.runtime.passes import Manager, GraphRewrite, MatcherPass, WrapType, Matcher
from openvino.runtime import opset10 as ops
from openvino.helpers import pack_data, unpack_data
pytorch_to_ov_layer_mapping = [{"__module.model.layers.0.mlp.down_proj/aten::to/Convert": }]
packed_layername_tensor_dict_list = [{"name":"__module.model.layers.0.mlp.down_proj/aten::to/Convert","value":np.ones([1376*4, 4096],dtype=np.uint8)}]

class InsertWeights(MatcherPass):
    def __init__(self,packed_layername_tensor_dict_list):
        self.model_changed = False

        param = WrapType("opset10.Convert")

        def callback(matcher: Matcher) -> bool:
            root = matcher.get_match_root()
            if root is None:
                return False
            root_output = matcher.get_match_value()
            for y in packed_layername_tensor_dict_list:
                #root_name = root.get_friendly_name().replace('.','_')
                root_name = root.get_friendly_name()
                print(f"root_name: {root_name}")
                if root_name.find(y["name"]) != -1 :
                    consumers = root.input_value(0).get_target_inputs()
                    unpacked_data = unpack_data(y["value"],Type.u4,y["value"].shape)
                    new_weights = ops.constant(np.zeros(root.get_output_shape(0)),Type.u4,name=y["name"]+"_new_const")
                    print("new_weights: ", new_weights)
          [:] = unpacked_data.ravel()
                    print(f"new_weights.shape: {new_weights.shape}")
                    for consumer in consumers:

                    # For testing purpose
                    self.model_changed = True
                    # Use new operation for additional matching

            return True

        self.register_matcher(Matcher(param,"InsertWeights"), callback)

if __name__ == "__main__":
    model_path = "Qwen1.5-7B-Chat-GPTQ-Int4-OV/pytorch/dldt/GPTQ_INT4-FP16/openvino_model.xml"
    modified_model_path = "Qwen1.5-7B-Chat-GPTQ-Int4-OV/pytorch/dldt/GPTQ_INT4-FP16/modified_openvino_model.xml")
    core = Core()
    ov_model = core.read_model(model_path)
    manager = Manager()
    ov.save_model(ov_model, modified_model_path)

We defined a OpenVINO™ transformation "InsertWeights" to find the target constant node via ov::pass::MatchPass, then we create a new Constat node with external numpy data and pack it as uint4 OpenVINO™ Tensor to replace original constant node in graph. In the end, we apply "InsertWeights" transformation to original OpenVINO™ model and save modified model on disk for deployment.


In this blog, we introduce how to apply graph customization based on OpenVINO™ model with OpenVINO™ transformation API. Furthermore, we show two examples of inserting layers & modifying layer weights based on Qwen LLM model with simple Python code.



OpenVINO™Transformation API

IntegrateOpenVINO™ with Your Application – Model Representation


OpenVINO Extension operation by SYCL program on CPU

April 11, 2024

In this blog, we will introduce the path that how OpenVINO support extensibility on CPU platform, and a sample of creating one custom operation by implement a SYCL program on CPU. oneAPI has two programming modes, one is through direct programming by SYCL which is C++ based language; another is based on acceleration libraries. In this sample we will use oneAPI DPC++ compiler to support SYCL program compiling in custom extension library, so that if users familiar with SYCL optimization can refer the OpenVINO extension mechanism to support and optimize their own operation kernel.


First of all, you should understand the interface and invoke scheduling of extension operations through OpenVINO core API. OpenVINO support to create a custom operation which is inherited from ov::op::Op and realize the member function “evaluate()” with SYCL implementation. Then, register this customer operation by “ov::OpExtension” to generate a runtime library of OpenVINO extensions. Finally, we will enable the custom extension library can be called by “add_extension()” function by Core API in runtime.


The next step is to create an IR model with this extension operation. We will introduce a method to create OV model by using OpenVINO opset and modify the layer version to extension make sure Core API can invoke operation registered in the extension library.

System requirement

Please make sure you already correctly install the OpenVINO C++ package from:

And setup environment variable for OpenVINO by:

source ./l_openvino_toolkit_ubuntu22_2024.0.0.14488.5e7e51dc778_x86_64/

Then, install the DPC++ compiler, and source the environment variable:

source /opt/intel/oneapi/

In this blog, we create a customized “SYCL_Add” operation, the folder and files structure like below:

 | |-add.cpp
 | |-add.hpp

Step 1: Create custom operation by SYCL kernel.

For example, we create a custom operation to realize the functionality of “Add” and named it as “SYCL_Add”. We define this operation with header “add.hpp”:

#pragma once

//! [op:common_include]
#include <openvino/op/op.hpp>
#include <vector>
//! [op:common_include]

//! [op:header]
namespace TemplateExtension {

class Add : public ov::op::Op {

    Add() = default;
    Add(const ov::Output<ov::Node>& A, const ov::Output<ov::Node>& B);
    void validate_and_infer_types() override;
    std::shared_ptr<ov::Node> clone_with_new_inputs(const ov::OutputVector& new_args) const override;
    bool visit_attributes(ov::AttributeVisitor& visitor) override;

    bool evaluate(ov::TensorVector& outputs, const ov::TensorVector& inputs) const override;
    bool has_evaluate() const override;

//! [op:header]

}  // namespace TemplateExtension

Then, we need to override the member functions of this new operation, especially the implementation of “evaluate()”.If this blog, we will show an example of SYCL kernel. To enable SYCL programming on CPU, you are required to install the DPC++ compiler and include the header <sycl/sycl.hpp>. Below is the code implementation of “add.cpp”:

// Copyright (C) 2018-2024 Intel Corporation
// SPDX-License-Identifier: Apache-2.0

#include "add.hpp"
#include <sycl/sycl.hpp>

using namespace TemplateExtension;
using namespace sycl;

//! [op:ctor]
Add::Add(const ov::Output<ov::Node>& A, const ov::Output<ov::Node>& B): Op(ov::OutputVector{A,B}){
//! [op:ctor]

//! [op:validate]
void Add::validate_and_infer_types() {
    auto outShape = get_input_partial_shape(0);
    set_output_type(0, ov::element::Type_t::i32, outShape);
//! [op:validate]

//! [op:copy]
std::shared_ptr<ov::Node> Add::clone_with_new_inputs(const ov::OutputVector& new_args) const {
    OPENVINO_ASSERT(new_args.size() == 2, "Incorrect number of new arguments");
    return std::make_shared<Add>(,;
//! [op:copy]

//! [op:visit_attributes]
bool Add::visit_attributes(ov::AttributeVisitor& visitor) {
    return true;
//! [op:visit_attributes]

void add_vectors(sycl::queue& queue, sycl::buffer<float>& a, sycl::buffer<float>& b, sycl::buffer<float>& c, int& N) {
   //sycl::range n(a.size());

   queue.submit([&](sycl::handler& cgh) {
      auto in_a_accessor = a.get_access<sycl::access::mode::read>(cgh);
      auto in_b_accessor = b.get_access<sycl::access::mode::read>(cgh);
      auto out_c_accessor = c.get_access<sycl::access::mode::write>(cgh);

      cgh.parallel_for(range<1>(N), [=](sycl::id<1> i) {
               out_c_accessor[i] = in_a_accessor[i] + in_b_accessor[i];

//! [op:evaluate]
bool Add::evaluate(ov::TensorVector& outputs, const ov::TensorVector& inputs) const {
    //std::cout << ".........Add SYCL Impl execute.........." << std::endl;

    float* src_0_ptr = reinterpret_cast<float*>(inputs[0].data());
    float* src_1_ptr = reinterpret_cast<float*>(inputs[1].data());
    float* dst_ptr = reinterpret_cast<float*>(outputs[0].data());

    sycl::queue Q;

    std::vector<size_t> in_dims = inputs[0].get_shape();

    int len = static_cast<int>(in_dims[0]);
    for(int i=1;i<in_dims.size();i++){
        len = len * static_cast<int>(in_dims[i]);

    sycl::buffer<float,1> src_0(src_0_ptr, sycl::range<1>(len));
    sycl::buffer<float,1> src_1(src_1_ptr, sycl::range<1>(len));
    sycl::buffer<float,1> dst(dst_ptr, sycl::range<1>(len));

    add_vectors(Q, src_0, src_1, dst, len);

    return true;

bool Add::has_evaluate() const {
    return true;
//! [op:evaluate]

As you can see, in this SYCL kernel implementation, there require creating buffer objects which can be managed on device and create accessors to control the accessing of these buffers. So, it remains buffer type conversion between C++ float pointer and SYCL float buffer. The idea of SYCL programming is like OpenCL for heterogeneous platform like GPU/NPU which remains buffer management and synchronization between host and device. This sample is just for CPU extension, there’s no use with device memory.

Step 2: Register custom operation as extension.

To register the customer operation by “ov::OpExtension”,refer below code of “ov_extension.cpp”:

// Copyright (C) 2018-2024 Intel Corporation
// SPDX-License-Identifier: Apache-2.0

#include <openvino/core/extension.hpp>
#include <openvino/core/op_extension.hpp>
#include <openvino/frontend/extension.hpp>
#include "add/add.hpp"

//! [ov_extension:entry_point]
//! [ov_extension:entry_point]

Then, you can create “CMakeLists.txt” file like below. Make sure use the DPC++ compiler with option “-fsycl”.

cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 3.16)

set(TARGET_NAME "custom")
set(CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS "${CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS} -fsycl -O3 -std=c++17 -mavx512f -mavx512vl -mavx512pf -mavx512er -mavx512cd")
find_package(OpenVINO REQUIRED)
add_library(${TARGET_NAME} MODULE
target_link_libraries(${TARGET_NAME} PRIVATE openvino::runtime)

Use cmake to compile the runtime library for the extension operation. If you have more operations, just add source files into “add_library()”. Then we can get the runtime library called “”.If you meet any problem about compiler icpx, please make sure you already correctly install the DPC++ compile, and source the environment variable.

Step 3: Create IR model by OpenVINO opset

Here introduces a hack method to create ancustom operation “SYCL_Add” by exist OpenVINO opset. Due to the parameter and nodeinput/output of custom op is same as “ov::op::v1::Add”, thus we can use thismethod.


Firstly, create a python program to build OpenVINO IR model with “ov::op::v1::Add”. You can also use OpenVINO C++ API to create model, here use Python code just for quick verification.

from openvino.runtime import Core, Model, Tensor, Type
import openvino.runtime as ov
from openvino.runtime import opset11 as opset

def model():
    data1 = opset.parameter([-1,-1,-1,-1], Type.i32, name='input_1')
    data2 = opset.parameter([-1,-1,-1,-1], Type.i32, name='input_2')
    SYCL_add = opset.add(data1,data2,auto_broadcast='numpy',name="Add")
    Result = opset.result(SYCL_add, name='output_add')
return Model([Result],[data1,data2])

core = Core()
m = model()
ov.save_model(m, "SYCL_add.xml")

Now, you will get the IR model with OpenVINO “opset.Add”. We can directly modify the “.xml” like below, change the type of this layer to “SYCL_Add” and modify the version of the layer to “extension”.

manually modify layer type and version to extension operation

Step 4: Run and profile the model execution with the SYCLextension library.

Now, you can quick check the workable and performance by OpenVINO benchmark_app sample:

$ ./benchmark_app -m ~/POC/sycl_custom/SYCL_add.xml -extensions ~/POC/sycl_custom/build/ -data_shape input_1[64,64,64,64], input_2[64,64,64,64] -t 1 -pc

You can check the execution time of yourSYCL kernel:

[ INFO ] Performance counts for 0-th infer request
input_1              Status.NOT_RUN       layerType: Parameter            execType: unknown_i32          realTime (ms): 0.000      cpuTime (ms): 0.000
input_2              Status.NOT_RUN       layerType: Parameter            execType: unknown_i32          realTime (ms): 0.000      cpuTime (ms): 0.000
Add                  Status.EXECUTED      layerType: Reference            execType: ref_i32              realTime (ms): 21.977     cpuTime (ms): 21.977
output_add           Status.EXECUTED      layerType: Result               execType: unknown_i32          realTime (ms): 0.001      cpuTime (ms): 0.001
Total time:     21.978 milliseconds
Total CPU time: 21.978 milliseconds

Please note, the “execType” is using the ref_xxx means your custom reference implementation kernel with the data type.


This blog just shows the capable way to enable SYCL kernel as the extension of CPU plugin, we will not focusing on guiding the user implement the SYCL kernel like above programming. There are a lot of technic skills of kernel optimization, if you already have an efficient SYCL kernel and want to enable as the CPU extension to workaround some customized operations. We hope this blog will be helpful to you.


Optimizing Whisper and Distil-Whisper for Speech Recognition with OpenVINO and NNCF

January 29, 2024

Authors: Nikita Savelyev, Alexander Kozlov, Ekaterina Aidova, Maxim Proshin


Whisper is a general-purpose speech recognition model from OpenAI. The model can transcribe speech across dozens of languages and even handle poor audio quality or excessive background noise. You can find more information about this model in the research paper, OpenAI blog, model card and GitHub repository.

Recently, a distilled variant of the model called Distil-Whisper has been proposed in the paper Robust Knowledge Distillation via Large-Scale Pseudo Labelling. Compared to Whisper, Distil-Whisper runs several times faster with 50% fewer parameters, while performing to within 1% word error rate (WER) on out-of-distribution evaluation data.

Whisper is a Transformer-based encoder-decoder model, also referred to as a sequence-to-sequence model. It maps a sequence of audio spectrogram features to a sequence of text tokens. First, the raw audio inputs are converted to a log-Mel spectrogram by action of the feature extractor. Then, the Transformer encoder encodes the spectrogram to form a sequence of encoder hidden states. Finally, the decoder autoregressively predicts text tokens, conditional on both the previous tokens and the encoder's hidden states.

You can see the model architecture in the diagram below:

In this article, we would like to demonstrate how to improve Whisper and Distil-Whisper inference speed with OpenVINO for Intel hardware. Additionally, we show how to make models even faster by applying 8-bit Post-training Quantization with Neural Network Compression Framework (NNCF). In the end we present evaluation results from accuracy and performance standpoints on a large-scale dataset.

All code snippets presented in this article are from the Automatic speech recognition using Distil-Whisper and OpenVINO Jupyter notebook, so you can follow along.

Converting Model to OpenVINO format

We are going to load models from Hugging Face Hub with the help of Optimum Intel library which makes it easier to load and run OpenVINO-optimized models. For more details, pleaes refer to the Hugging Face Optimum documentation.

For example, the following code loads the Distil-Whisper large-v2 model ready for inference with OpenVINO.

from import OVModelForSpeechSeq2Seq

model_id = "distil-whisper/distil-large-v2"
model_path = Path(model_id)
if not model_path.exists():
    ov_model = OVModelForSpeechSeq2Seq.from_pretrained(
        model_id, export=True, compile=False, load_in_8bit=False)
    ov_model = OVModelForSpeechSeq2Seq.from_pretrained(
        model_path, compile=False)

Models from the Distil-Whisper family are available at Distil-Whisper Models collection and Whisper models are available at OpenAI Hugging Face page.

To transcribe an input audio with the loaded model, we first compile the model to the device of choice and then call generate() method on input features prepared by corresponding processor.

from transformers import AutoProcessor

processor = AutoProcessor.from_pretrained(model_id)"AUTO")

# ... load input audio and reference text
input_features = processor(input_audio).input_features
predicted_ids = ov_model.generate(input_features)
transcription = processor.batch_decode(predicted_ids, skip_special_tokens=True)[0]
print(f"Reference: {reference_text}")
print(f"Result: {transcription}")

The output is the following. As you can see the transcription equals the reference text.

Result:  Mr. Quilter is the apostle of the middle classes, and we are glad to welcome his gospel.

Running Post-Training Quantization with NNCF

NNCF enables post-training quantization by adding quantization layers into the model graph and then using a subset of the training dataset to initialize parameters of these additional quantization layers. During quantization, some layers (e.g., MatMuls, Convolutions) are transformed to be executed in INT8 instead of FP16/FP32. If a quantized operation is parameterized then its corresponding weight variable is also converted to INT8.

In general, the optimization process contains the following steps:

  1. Create a calibration dataset for quantization.
  2. Run nncf.quantize() to obtain quantized encoder and decoder models.
  3. Serialize the INT8 models using openvino.save_model() function.

Whisper model consists of an encoder and decoder submodels. Furthermore, for the decoder model its forward() signature is different for the first call compared to all subsequent calls. During the first call, key-value cache is empty and is not needed for decoder inference. Starting from the second call, key-value cache is fed to the decoder. Because of this, these two cases are represented by two separate OpenVINO models: openvino_decoder_model.xml and openvino_decoder_with_past_model.xml. Since the first decoder model is inferred only once it does not make much sense to quantize it. So, we apply quantization to the encoder and the decoder with past models.

The first step towards quantization is collecting calibration data. For that, we need to collect some number of model inputs for both models. To do that, we patch OpenVINO model request objects with an InferRequestWrapper class instance that will intercept model inputs during inference and store them in a list. We infer the model on about 50 samples from validation split of librispeech_asr dataset.

def collect_calibration_dataset(ov_model: OVModelForSpeechSeq2Seq, calibration_dataset_size: int):
    # Overwrite model request properties, saving the original ones for restoring later
    original_encoder_request = ov_model.encoder.request
    original_decoder_with_past_request = ov_model.decoder_with_past.request
    encoder_calibration_data = []
    decoder_calibration_data = []
    ov_model.encoder.request = InferRequestWrapper(original_encoder_request, encoder_calibration_data)
    ov_model.decoder_with_past.request = InferRequestWrapper(original_decoder_with_past_request,

    calibration_dataset = load_dataset("librispeech_asr", "clean", split="validation", streaming=True)
    for sample in islice(calibration_dataset, calibration_dataset_size):
        input_features = extract_input_features(sample)

    ov_model.encoder.request = original_encoder_request
    ov_model.decoder_with_past.request = original_decoder_with_past_request

    return encoder_calibration_data, decoder_calibration_data

With the collected calibration data for encoder and decoder models we can proceed to quantization itself. Let's examine the quantization call for the encoder model. For the decoder model, it is similar.

quantized_encoder = nncf.quantize(
    ov_model.encoder.model,                     # ov.Model object of the encoder model
    nncf.Dataset(encoder_calibration_data),     # calibration data wrapped in a nncf.Dataset object
    subset_size=len(encoder_calibration_data),  # number of samples to calibrate on (all are chosen)
    model_type=nncf.ModelType.TRANSFORMER,      # providing the information that Whisper encoder is of
    # a Transformer architecture
    advanced_parameters=nncf.AdvancedQuantizationParameters(smooth_quant_alpha=0.50)    # Smooth Quant 
    # algorithm reduces activation quantization error; optimal alpha was obtained through grid search
ov.save_model(quantized_encoder, quantized_model_path / "openvino_encoder_model.xml")

After both models are quantized and saved, the quantized Whisper model can be loaded and run the same way as shown previously. Comparing the transcriptions produced by original and quantized models results in the following.

Original :  Mr. Quilter is the apostle of the middle classes, and we are glad to welcome his gospel.
Quantized:  Mr. Quilter is the apostle of the middle classes, and we are glad to welcome his gospel.

As you can see for the quantized distil-whisper-large-v2 transcription is the same.

Evaluating on Common Voice Dataset

We evaluate Whisper and Distil-Whisper large-v2 model variants on a Common Voice 13.0 speech-to-text dataset. We use en/test split containing 16372 audio samples amounting to about 27 hours of recordings.

The evaluation is done across three model types: original PyTorch model, original OpenVINO model and quantized OpenVINO model. Additionally, we run tests on three Intel CPUs: Cascade Lake Intel(R) Core(TM) i9-10980XE, Ice Lake Intel(R) Xeon(R) Gold 6338 and Sapphire Rapids Intel(R) Xeon(R) Gold 6430L.

For all combinations above we measure transcription time and accuracy. When measuring time for a model we sum up generate() call durations for all audio samples. Transcription accuracy is represented as Accuracy = (100 - WER), WER stands for Word Error Rate. We compute accuracy for each audio sample and then take the average value across the dataset. The results are given in the table below.

Please note that we report transcription time in relative terms such that the values for each CPU are normalized over its corresponding column. The duration of audio data in the dataset is 27.06 hours and the absolute transcription time values for Whisper large-v2 PyTorch on each CPU are:

  • 20.35 hours for Core i9-10980XE
  • 14.09 hours for Xeon Gold 6338
  • 15.03 hours for Xeon Gold 6430L

Based on the results we can conclude that:

  1. OpenVINO models execute 1.4x - 5.1x faster than PyTorch models with pretty much the same accuracy across all cases.
  2. When compared to original PyTorch models, quantized OpenVINO models provide 2.1x - 6.1x performance boost with 1-2% accuracy drop.

NOTE: in terms of this article we focus on presenting performance values. Accuracy of quantized models can be improved with a more careful selection of calibration data.

Notices and Disclaimers:

Performance varies by use, configuration, and other factors. Learn more at Performance results are based on testing as of dates shown in configurations and may not reflect all publicly available updates. No product or component can be absolutely secure. Intel technologies may require enabled hardware, software or service activation.

The products described may contain design defects or errors known as errata which may cause the product to deviate from published specifications. Current characterized errata are available on request.

Test Configuration: Intel® Core™ i9-10980XE CPU Processor at 3.00GHz with DDR4 128 GB at 3000MHz, OS: Ubuntu 20.04.3 LTS; Intel® Xeon® Gold 6338 CPU Processor at 2.00GHz with DDR4 256 GB at 3200MHz, OS: Ubuntu 20.04.3 LTS; Intel® Xeon® Gold 6430L CPU Processor at 1.90GHz with DDR5 1024 GB at 4800MHz, OS: Ubuntu 20.04.6 LTS. Testing was performed using distil-whisper-asr notebook for model export and whisper evaluation notebook for model evaluation.

The test was conducted by Intel in December 2023.


We demonstrated how to load and run Whisper and Distil-Whisper models for audio transcription task with OpenVINO and Optimum Intel, and how to perform INT8 post-training quantization of these models with NNCF. Further we evaluated these models on a large scale speech-to-text dataset across multiple CPU devices. The evaluation results show a significant performance boost of OpenVINO vs PyTorch models without loss of transcription quality, and even a larger boost with a tolerable accuracy drop when we apply INT8 quantization.


Use Encrypted Model with OpenVINO

November 9, 2023

Deploying deep-learning capabilities to edge devices can present security challenges like ensuring inference integrity, or providing copyright protection of your deep-learning models. OpenVINO provide a simple method with crypto algorithm to protect model in disk. Model encryption, decryption and authentication are not provided by OpenVINO but can be implemented with third-party tools (i.e., OpenSSL). In this example, we use AES-128-cbc algorithm in OpenSSL to demonstrate the model cryptography.

As you can see the mechanism in below image, there are two part to process:

  1. First is to encrypt your plain IR model into encrypted model.
  2. The second part is to use the same password key and IV which used for encryption before to decrypt model at model loading runtime.
The schema of model encryption and decryption by OpenVINO

Step 1: Encrypt model

Make sure you install the OpenSSL and boost, for example in Ubuntu:

$ sudo apt install openssl libboost-dev

Then use command line to do model encryption by OpenSSL AES-128-CBC algorithm. In this simply example, I use same password for Key and IV, it is hexadecimal of string "openvino encrypt". You can use some online str2hex tool to generate hex representation of your string password.

$ openssl enc -aes-128-cbc -in openvino_model.xml -out openvino_model_enc.xml -K 6f70656e76696e6f20656e6372797074 -iv 6f70656e76696e6f20656e6372797074
$ openssl enc -aes-128-cbc -in openvino_model.bin -out openvino_model_enc.bin -K 6f70656e76696e6f20656e6372797074 -iv 6f70656e76696e6f20656e6372797074

Step 2: Decrypt model

Here provide the sample code to read encrypted model into buffer and decrypt to plain model binary. Then read and compile model.

#include <fstream>
#include <iostream>
#include <vector>
#include <cmath>
#include <cctype>
#include <string>
#include <openvino/runtime/core.hpp>
#include <openssl/aes.h>
#include <boost/algorithm/hex.hpp>

using namespace std;

vector<unsigned char> aes_128_cbc_decrypt(
    vector<unsigned char> &cipher,
    std::vector<unsigned char> &key,
    std::vector<unsigned char> iv) {

    AES_KEY ctx;
    AES_set_decrypt_key(, 128, &ctx);
    std::vector<uint8_t> plain;
    //cipherLen = clearLen + 16 - (clearLen mod 16)
    int plain_size = ceil(cipher.size()/16)*16; //make sure alloc buffer is enough to plain_size
    std::cout << "AES_cbc_encrypt start:" << std::endl;
    AES_cbc_encrypt(,, plain.size(), &ctx,, AES_DECRYPT);
    std::cout << "AES_cbc_encrypt done" << std::endl;
    return plain;

void decrypt_file(std::ifstream & stream,
                  std::vector<unsigned char> & key,
                  std::vector<unsigned char> & iv,
                  std::vector<uint8_t> & result) {
    std::vector<unsigned char> cipher((std::istreambuf_iterator<char>(stream)),  std::istreambuf_iterator<char>());
    std::cout << "aes_128_cbc_decrypt" << std::endl;
    std::vector<unsigned char> decrypt_model = aes_128_cbc_decrypt(cipher, key, iv);
    result = decrypt_model;


int main() {
    std::string key_hex = "6f70656e76696e6f20656e6372797074";
    std::string iv_hex = "6f70656e76696e6f20656e6372797074";
    std::vector<unsigned char> key_bytes;
    std::vector<unsigned char> iv_bytes;
    boost::algorithm::unhex(key_hex, std::back_inserter(key_bytes));
    boost::algorithm::unhex(iv_hex, std::back_inserter(iv_bytes));
    std::vector<uint8_t> model_data, weights_data;
    std::ifstream model_file("openvino_model_enc.xml",std::ios::in | std::ios::binary), weights_file("openvino_model_enc.bin",std::ios::in | std::ios::binary);
    // Read model files and decrypt them into temporary memory block
    std::cout << "decrypt file" << std::endl;
    decrypt_file(model_file, key_bytes, iv_bytes, model_data); //key & iv is the same
    decrypt_file(weights_file, key_bytes, iv_bytes, weights_data);
    ov::Core core;
    // Load model from temporary memory block
    std::string str_model(model_data.begin(), model_data.end());
    std::unique_ptr<ov::InferRequest> infer_request= std::make_unique<ov::InferRequest>(core.compile_model(str_model,ov::Tensor(ov::element::u8, {weights_data.size()},,"CPU").create_infer_request());
    std::cout << "compile success" << std::endl;
    return 0;

CMakeLists.txt file like below for compiling:

cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 3.5)
set(CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE "Release" CACHE STRING "CMake build type")
add_compile_options(-O3 -march=native -Wall)

find_package(OpenVINO REQUIRED)
find_package(OpenSSL REQUIRED)
find_package(Boost REQUIRED)

add_executable(model_crypto main.cpp)
target_include_directories(model_crypto PRIVATE ${OV_INCLUDE_DIR} )
target_link_libraries(model_crypto PRIVATE openvino::runtime OpenSSL::SSL Boost::headers)

This blog just provide an example of model encryption by OpenSSL. This method can only protect you model in disk, for total memory crypto, you can refer technologies like OpenVINO™ Security Add-on in virtual machine to provide an isolated environment for security sensitive operations, and use Intel® SGX (Software Guard Extensions) which allows developers to split a computer's memory into private, predefined, highly secure areas called enclaves, which better protect sensitive information.

  1. OpenVINO model protection:
  2. OpenVINO™ Security Add-on:
  3. OpenSSL official website:

Intel® DL Streamer Optimize Media-AI pipeline on Intel® Data Center Flex dGPU by Docker

December 14, 2022

Authors Kunda Xu, Wenyi Zou


In this blog is about How to use DL-streamer to build a complete Media-AI pipeline (Including: Video Access, Media Decode, AI Inference, Media Encode and Result Export). And the pipeline will be accelerated by OpenVINO™ and optimize to run on Flex dGPU(Intel® Data Center Flex dGPU)


- DL-streamer
Intel® Deep Learning Streamer (Intel® DL Streamer)Pipeline Framework is an easy way to construct media analytics pipelines using Intel® Distribution of OpenVINO™ Toolkit. It leverages the open source media framework GStreamer to provide optimized media operations and Deep Learning Inference Engine from OpenVINO™ Toolkit to provide optimized inference.

- OpenVINO
OpenVINO™ is an open-source toolkit for optimizing and deploying AI inference which can boost deep learning performance in computer vision, automatic speech recognition, natural language processing and other common task.

- Docker (Optional)
Docker is an open-source platform that enables developers to build, deploy, run, update, and manage containers—standardized, executable components that combine application source code with the operating system (OS) libraries and dependencies required to run that code in any environment.

Install DL-Streamer and OpenVINO™ via Docker

Images for Intel® Data Center GPU Flex Series

Images 2023.0.0-ubuntu22-gpu682* are intended for Intel® Data Center GPU Flex Series and include

1.     Intel®DL Streamer 2023.0.0

2.    OpenVINO™ Toolkit 2023.0.0

3.    Drivers for Intel® Data Center GPU Flex Series, drivers version 682.14

Two images are listed below, images -devel additionally contain samples and development files

Runtime image that includes GStreamer* Pipeline Framework elements, elements built with Intel® oneAPI DPC++/C++ Compiler

docker pull intel/dlstreamer:2023.0.0-ubuntu22-gpu682-dpcpp

Developer image that builds on runtime image containing samples, development files and a model downloader, built with Intel® oneAPI DPC++/C++ Compiler

docker pull intel/dlstreamer:2023.0.0-ubuntu22-gpu682-dpcpp-devel

Taking “dlstreamer:2023.0.0-ubuntu22-gpu682-dpcpp” docker images as a sample to show how to pull the docker image from docker hub.

docker pull intel/dlstreamer:2023.0.0-ubuntu22-gpu682-dpcpp
Fig 1. docker pull images from docker hub

DL-Streamer Media-AI pipeline quick start example

Make sure the pre-requirement had already installed, there is a very basic introduction to using object detection models(yolov5) to build a DL-streamer pipeline.

Step 1.Download video and yolov5s model file

Download video

curl -L -o people_walking_sample.mp4

Download yolov5s-416_INT8 model from pipeline-zoo-models

mkdir yolov5s-416_INT8 && cd yolov5s-416_INT8

Step 2.Enter Docker and copy the files into docker container

Create and enter the docker container

docker run -it --device /dev/dri/ --user root --rm intel/dlstreamer:2023.0.0-ubuntu22-gpu682-dpcpp

Open another terminal for file copy into container ,copy video and model into docker container

sudo docker cp yolov5s-416_INT8/ <Docker CONTAINER ID>:/home/dlstreamer
docker cp people_walking_sample.mp4 <Docker CONTAINER ID>:/home/dlstreamer

Step 3. Run an object detection Media-AI pipeline

By the following script, we can run pipeline the Media-AI objection detection on the Flex dGPU in the docker container.

gst-launch-1.0 filesrc location=/path/to/people_walking_sample.mp4 ! decodebin !  capsfilter caps="video/x-raw(memory:VASurface)" ! gvadetect model=/path/to/yolov5s-416_INT8/yolov5s.xml model_proc=/path/to/yolov5s-416_INT8/yolo-v5.json inference-interval=1 device=GPU.0 batch-size=32 pre-process-backend=vaapi-surface-sharing ! queue ! gvatrack tracking-type=short-term-imageless ! gvafpscounter ! fakesink sync=false
Figure 2. DL-streamer run pipeline on the dGPU

If want to encode the detection result and save as video file, can use the follow script

gst-launch-1.0 filesrc location=/path/to/people_walking_sample.mp4 ! decodebin !  capsfilter caps="video/x-raw(memory:VASurface)" ! gvadetect model=/path/to/yolov5s-416_INT8/yolov5s.xml model_proc=/path/to/yolov5s-416_INT8/yolo-v5.json inference-interval=1 device=GPU.0 batch-size=32 pre-process-backend=vaapi-surface-sharing ! queue ! gvatrack tracking-type=short-term-imageless ! meta_overlay device=GPU ! gvafpscounter ! vaapipostproc ! vaapih265enc rate-control=cbr bitrate=6144  ! filesink location=./encoded_video_track.265 sync=false

The encoded video file will save in the container and can be copied out in new terminal.

docker cp <Docker CONTAINER ID>:/home/dlstreamer encoded_video_track.265 .

Figure 3. DL-streamer yolov5s pipeline result

PS. Instruction about DL-streamer CLI parameter

decodebin: Auto-magically constructs a decoding pipeline using available decoders and demuxers via auto-plugging.

vaapipostproc: Consists in various post processing algorithms to be applied to VA surfaces. For e.g. scaling, deinterlacing (bob, motion-adaptive, motion-compensated), noise reduction or sharpening.

gvadetect: Performs object detection on a full-frame or region of interest (ROI) using object detection models such as YOLO v3-v5, MobileNet-SSD, Faster-RCNN etc. Outputs the ROI for detected objects.

gvatrack: Performs object tracking using zero-term, zero-term-imageless, or short-term-imageless tracking algorithms. Zero-term tracking assigns unique object IDs and requires object detection to run on every frame. Short-term tracking allows to track objects between frames, there by reducing the need to run object detection on each frame. Imageless tracking forms object associations based on the movement and shape of objects, and it does not use image data.

gvafpscounter: Measures frames per second across multiple streams in a single process.

Tuning Tips

Users can refer the different platform using case which were supported by OpenVINO™ and the device profiling API to realize performance tuning of your inference program between CPU, iGPU, dGPU. It will also be helpful to developer finding out the place where has the potential space of performance improvement.


Enable OpenVINO™ Optimization for GroundingDINO

Authors: Wenyi Zou, Xiake Sun


GroundingDINO introduces a language-guided query selection module to enhance object detection using input text. This module selects relevant features from image and text inputs and uses them as decoder queries. In this blog, we provide the OpenVINO™ optimization for GroundingDINO on Intel® platforms.

The public GroundingDINO project is referenced from: GroundingDINO

The GroundingDINO refer the model structure in below picture:

Figure 1. The framework of Grounding DINO. We present the overall framework, a feature enhancer layer, and a decoder layer in block 1,block 2, and block 3,respectively.

OpenVINO™ backend on GroundingDINO

In this project, you do not require to download OpenVINO™ and build the library with GroundingDINO project manually. It’s already fully integrated with OpenVINO™ runtime library for downloading, program compiling and linking.

At present, this repository already optimized and validated by OpenVINO™ 2023.1.0.dev20230811 version. Check the operating system which can support OpenVINO™ runtime library directly:

  • Ubuntu 22.04 long-term support     (LTS), 64-bit (Kernel 5.15+)
  • Ubuntu 20.04 long-term support     (LTS), 64-bit (Kernel 5.15+)
  • Ubuntu 18.04 long-term support     (LTS) with limitations, 64-bit (Kernel 5.4+)
  • Windows* 10 
  • Windows* 11 
  • macOS* 10.15 and above,     64-bit 
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux* 8,     64-bit

Step 1: Install system dependency and setup environment

Create and enable python virtual environment

conda create -n ov_py310 python=3.10 -y
conda activate ov_py310

Clone the GroundingDINO repository from GitHub

git clone -b wenyi5608-openvino

Change the current directory to the GroundingDINO folder

cd GroundingDINO/

Install python dependency

pip install -r requirements.txt
pip install openvino==2023.1.0.dev20230811 openvino-dev==2023.1.0.dev20230811 onnx onnxruntime

Install the required dependencies in the current directory

pip install -e .

Download pre-trained model weights

mkdir weights
cd weights/
wget -q
cd ..

Step 2: Export to OpenVINO™ models

python demo/ -c groundingdino/config/ -p weights/groundingdino_swint_ogc.pth -o weights/

Step 3: Simple inference test with PyTorch and OpenVINO™

Inference with PyTorch

python demo/ \
-c groundingdino/config/ \
-p weights/groundingdino_swint_ogc.pth \
-i .asset/demo7.jpg \
-t "Horse. Clouds. Grasses. Sky. Hill." \
-o logs/1111 \

Inference with OpenVINO™

python demo/ \
-c groundingdino/config/ \
-p weights/groundingdino.xml \
-i .asset/demo7.jpg  \
-t " Horse. Clouds. Grasses. Sky. Hill."  \
-o logs/2222 -d CPU
Figure2. Detection Prompt: “Horse. Clouds. Grasses. Sky. Hill.”, Visualization of OpenVINO™(left) and PyTorch(right) model output.